In order to defend a country, one not only needs to take military measures, but also to make administrative arrangements of a civil nature. The pagans of Mecca persistently persecuted Prophet Muhammad (SAW) and his followers for years, confiscated their property and drove them out of their homelands. They pursued Muslims even after they had gone into exile and called upon the people of Medina either to expel the Prophet (SAW) and his followers or to eliminate them altogether. The Prophet’s (SAW) foremost concern soon after the migration was the rehabilitation of the emigrants. The state that was set up embraced the major part of Medina comprised of Muslims, Jews and the pagan tribes who were all unanimous in their selection of the Prophet (SAW) as their leader. The provision was clearly made in the written Constitution of Medina. The Prophet (SAW) would be responsible for making all arrangements to meet the threat against the enemy. The Prophet (SAW) proceeded to seek military alliances with all the tribes of East, North and South of Medina so that no enemy could launch a direct attack on the city- state. The initial pacts with tribes around Medina were designed to defend it against the vengeance and venom of Meccan’s who had persecuted and killed Muslims. Also when Muslims had migrated to Medina, the Meccan’s confiscated their property.
The Quraysh of Mecca had no means of subsistence other than trade. Their caravans going to Iraq, Syria and Egypt in the North had inevitably to pass through the Medina. The Prophet (SAW) declared that they could not pass through the territory and also the territory of the tribes which had entered into an alliance with it. This was intolerable for the Quraysh, who insisted on the right of a safe passage. Many a times before the Battle of Badr, Muslim forces tried in vain to prevent the passage of the Quraysh caravans. They managed somehow to escape but the Muslims continued their efforts. By seeking Muslim determination in this regard, the Quraysh decided to force their way through the Muslim territory. When the Quraysh had gone northwards, it occurred to the Prophet (SAW) that they would return through the same route. The Prophet (SAW) proceeded south towards Mecca so that He (SAW) could reach a safe place to intercept the enemy. The place of Badr situated in a narrow valley between high hills was selected.
The Muslim troops looked about for the enemy in different places whiles the Prophet (SAW) Himself accompanied by a couple of His companions (RA), gathered intelligence from an ordinary Bedouin. A couple of days later, the Quraysh caravan under the leadership of Abu Sufyan also reached there and halted at some distance of this narrow pass, Badr. Abu Sufyan went alone towards the well, the only source of water there and enquired of the whereabouts of the tribal leader. He assured Abu Sufyan that he had not noticed any unusual movement of troops. On return he noticed some camel dung and picked up a piece for examining. He immediately came to the conclusion that the camels belonged to Medina as the dung possessed date-stones. He returned in all speed and dispatched a messenger to Mecca, informing to the pagan leaders for reinforcement. The Prophet (SAW) latter discovered that the caravan had already escaped. The place where the only well situated was selected as a suitable site by the Muslims.
The Meccan forces under the command of Abu Jahl and with other leaders reached the spot. They send two men to bring water but both of these were arrested by the Muslim patrol and were taken in front of the Prophet (SAW) who was busy in His (SAW) prayers. After finishing His prayers, Prophet (SAW) told to His soldiers: “You beat them when they tell the truth, and you leave them when they tell a lie.” Then the Prophet (SAW) personally enquired by imposing many questions as, “Who are you?” They replied, “We are the men of Meccan Army.” Prophet (SAW) asked, “What is your number?” They replied, “We do not know.” Prophet (SAW) asked, “How many camels are daily sacrificed to feed your men?” They answered, “Nine on one day and ten on the other.” The Prophet (SAW) deduced that their number would be between nine hundred and a thousand as one camel is enough to feed one hundred persons. In fact the total number was nine hundred and fifty (950).
On 17 Ramadan 2 A.H, Prophet (SAW) divided his force of three hundred and twelve (312) men into five sections. A small hut was set up on top of the hill so that Prophet (SAW) could pass appropriate orders. In every way the enemy was superior and more powerful than Muslims. The Prophet (SAW) prostrated himself in prayer to Almighty in the little hut and invoked His (SWT) help “O Allah! If you want that no one in the world should worship You in future, by all means defeat this little band of our; but if it is Your wish that people should continue to worship You, then grant victory to this small band of men over the large force.”Then the Prophet (SAW) addressed his companions; “You alone are the guardians of Truth in the whole world, and you alone are fighting for the cause of Allah, while the rest are all His enemies.”
The Muslim troops fought valiantly for the sake of Allah (SWT) and the casualties inflicted on the enemy were seventy two(72) dead including their leaders like Utba, Sheeba, Abu Jahl, Zamia, Auss, Umiya and an equal number were made prisoners of war. Only fourteen (14) Muslims were martyred among whom six were Muhajirs and eight were Ansars.
Allah (SWT) declared His kindness about the victory of Muslims against large force of Meccan Army in the Battle of Badr in a beautiful way; “O You who believe! Remember Allah’s favor to you when there came against you hosts, and we sent against them a wind and forces (Angels) that you saw not. And Allah is Ever All Seer of what you do.”(Al-Quran 33:09)
The Muslims gained through ransom money. Some prisoners paid in cash, some were poor but their relatives helped in collecting the required sum. Those literate but indeed very poor were asked to teach ten Muslims each to secure their freedom. But those very poor, illiterate and had not any relative to help them out, they were released after an undertaking not to fight the Muslims again.
In the Battle of Uhud the casualties inflicted on the Muslims were seventy (70) martyred; mostly Ansars and many were injured including the Prophet (PBUH) himself. The flying ambassador of Islam, Musaib Ibn Umair (RA) and Hazrat Hamzah (RA), the uncle of Prophet (SAW) also achieved martyrdom in this battle.
The reason behind the Battle of Ditch (Trench) which took place on 8 Zul-Qaida 5 A.H was Muslims involvement in the battles against the Jewish tribes of Medina i.e. Banu Qaynuqa and Banu Nadir which raged for several weeks. The enemy could not score a success in the Battle of the Ditch and had to lift the siege and return home.
All these deadly battles ended on10-Ramadan 8A.H with the Conquest of Mecca when the entire city of Mecca embraced Islam overnight by the noble behavior and decision making ability of the Noble Prophet(PBUH),hailed as , “Mercy for all mankind.”(Al-Quran 21:107). Allah (SWT) praises Prophet (SAW) as: “You (O Muhammad) by the Grace of your Lord are not mad. And verily, for you will be an endless reward. And verily, You are on an exalted (standard of) character.”(Al-Quran, 68:2-4).
Michael H Heart, in his work “The Hundred” declares Prophet Muhammad (SAW) as ‘the only person in the history of mankind who was supremely successful on both religious as well as secular grounds, even his ideological enemies were also fond of.’ Let us follow His teachings and express all the love for the Prophet (SAW). Allah says in the Holy Quran “O believers! You too love, glorify and bless the Prophet and salute him with all due respect.”(33:56)