Antibiotic Resistance: Alarm Bells Are Ringing
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Antibiotic Resistance: Alarm Bells Are Ringing

Taking antibiotics without a prescription or using them improperly can lead to antibiotic resistance. For regulatory authorities for framing a policy to combat this wake up call

Post by DR. FIAZ MAQBOOL FAZILI on Sunday, February 11, 2024

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Absolutely, correct. Antibiotics are powerful medications designed to treat bacterial infections. Antibiotics are the ‘wonder drugs’ to combat microbes. For decades, multiple varieties of antibiotics have not only been used for therapeutic purposes but practiced prophylactically across other industries such as agriculture and animal husbandry. Uncertainty has arisen, as microbes have become resistant to common antibiotics while the host remains unaware that antibiotic resistance has emerged. It's important to use antibiotics only as prescribed by a healthcare professional and to complete the full course of treatment, even if you start feeling better before it's finished.


Antibiotics are not candies. You go inside the shop and fetch them to taste them. They are serious things. Self-Medication, or taking antibiotics without a prescription or using them improperly can lead to antibiotic resistance. This occurs when bacteria evolve and become resistant to the effects of antibiotics, making infections more difficult to treat. Additionally, inappropriate use of antibiotics can have adverse effects on your health and may contribute to the development of other health issues. This article delves into some key reasons why regulatory policies are essential in addressing antibiotic resistance.


Causes of Antibiotic Resistance

  • Inappropriate Use: One of the primary drivers of antibiotic resistance is the overuse and misuse of antibiotics. In both human and animal healthcare, antibiotics are often prescribed unnecessarily or without proper supervision. Without proper medical supervision, individuals may use antibiotics incorrectly. They may self-diagnose and treat viral infections (which antibiotics cannot treat) or take incomplete courses, leading to ineffective treatment, incomplete eradication of bacteria and potential recurrence of infections leading to and the survival of resistant strains.


  • Agricultural Practices: The use of antibiotics in agriculture, poultry as alleged particularly in livestock for growth promotion and disease prevention, contributes significantly to the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Resistant strains can transfer from animals to humans through consumption of contaminated food products or direct contact with animals. Regulatory policies can establish guidelines for the appropriate use of antibiotics in both human and animal healthcare, helping to reduce unnecessary prescriptions and non-therapeutic use in agriculture.


  • Infection Control and antibiotic policy in medical institutions: Poor infection control practices or deficient antibiotic prescribing policies in healthcare settings facilitate the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Inadequate hand hygiene, improper sterilization of medical equipment, and insufficient isolation measures contribute to the transmission of resistant strains within hospitals and clinics.


  • Globalization and Travel: The ease of global travel allows antibiotic-resistant bacteria to spread across borders. Infected individuals can carry resistant strains to different regions, accelerating the global dissemination of antibiotic resistance.


Impact of Antibiotic Resistance

  • Increased Morbidity and Mortality: As antibiotics lose their efficacy, common infections become harder to treat, leading to increased morbidity and mortality rates. Minor infections can escalate into life-threatening conditions, posing a significant burden on healthcare systems worldwide.


  • Economic Consequences: The economic implications of antibiotic resistance are profound, with increased healthcare costs, prolonged hospital stays, and a decline in workforce productivity. Addressing antibiotic resistance is not only a health priority but also an essential economic consideration.


Remedies for Antibiotic Resistance

Implementing a strict policy of requiring prescriptions for antibiotics is essential for several reasons:


  • Stewardship Programs: Implementing antibiotic stewardship programs is crucial for promoting responsible antibiotic use. These programs involve education for healthcare professionals and the public, emphasizing the importance of completing prescribed antibiotic courses, avoiding unnecessary prescriptions, and choosing the right antibiotics based on bacterial sensitivity.


  • Access to Antibiotics: Allowing unrestricted access to antibiotics can contribute to misuse, overuse, and the development of resistant bacteria .While curbing inappropriate use is crucial, it's also essential to ensure that people have access to necessary antibiotics when needed. Regulatory policies can strike a balance by promoting access while preventing unnecessary use. The availability of antibiotics without a prescription poses significant public health concerns. Antibiotics are powerful medications that should be used judiciously to prevent antibiotic resistance and ensure effective treatment of bacterial infections.


  • Public Awareness and Education: Raising public awareness about the dangers of antibiotic resistance and the importance of responsible antibiotic use is crucial. Education campaigns can empower individuals to make informed decisions about their healthcare and contribute to the collective effort against antibiotic resistance. Increased awareness can lead to better adherence to prescription guidelines and a reduction in self-medication. The prescription SOPS process allows for valuable interactions between healthcare providers and patients. This offers an opportunity for education on proper antibiotic use, the importance of completing the full course of treatment, and the dangers of antibiotic resistance.


  • Research and Development of New Antibiotics: Investing in research and development to discover new antibiotics is vital in the fight against antibiotic resistance. Governments, pharmaceutical companies, and research institutions must collaborate to incentivize the development of novel antibiotics and alternative treatment strategies.


  • Patient Safety: Antibiotics, like any medication, can have side effects and interactions with other drugs. A healthcare professional's involvement is crucial to assess the patient's medical history, allergies, and potential drug interactions.


  • Preserving Effectiveness: The effectiveness of antibiotics depends on their proper use. Requiring a prescription ensures that healthcare professionals can choose the most appropriate antibiotic for the specific infection and prescribe the correct dosage and duration of treatment.


  • Regulation of Antibiotic Use in Agriculture: Stricter regulations on the use of antibiotics in agriculture, including bans on non-therapeutic use and the promotion of alternative farming practices, are essential to curb the spread of antibiotic resistance from animals to humans.


  • Environmental Considerations: Antibiotic residues in the environment, often stemming from agricultural practices, can contribute to resistance. Regulations can establish guidelines for the proper disposal of antibiotics and promote sustainable agricultural practices to minimize environmental impact.


  • Improved Surveillance and Monitoring: Enhanced surveillance systems can help identify emerging antibiotic-resistant strains promptly. With Medico in the chair of policy makers, we hope for effective policies on establishment of surveillance systems to monitor antibiotic use and resistance patterns. Regular monitoring of antibiotic use allows authorities to identify, tracking emerging resistance trends, hotspots, and high-risk areas, facilitating a targeted response to control the spread of resistant strains.


Antibiotic resistance poses a severe threat to global health, rendering once-effective antibiotics ineffective against bacterial infections a serious risk to public health, as it can lead to the spread of infections that are difficult or even impossible to treat. Addressing the root causes, implementing effective remedies, and promoting responsible antibiotic use are imperative to safeguard public health and ensure the continued efficacy of these life-saving medications. The wake-up call is clear – by taking proactive measures, we can mitigate the impact of antibiotic resistance and preserve the effectiveness of antibiotics for generations to come.


To address this issue, policymakers should consider implementing and enforcing regulations that restrict the over-the-counter sale of antibiotics without a prescription. Additionally, public awareness campaigns can educate the community about the dangers of antibiotic misuse and the importance of seeking professional medical advice before taking these medications.


Public health authorities, healthcare professionals, and community leaders can work together to promote responsible antibiotic use and safeguard the effectiveness of these critical drugs. In summary, regulatory policies are indispensable tools in the global effort to combat antibiotic resistance. They help shape behaviour, guide research and development, facilitate international collaboration, and ensure a comprehensive strategy.



(The author is a Practicing surgeon, certified professional in Healthcare Quality, National and international expert on Healthcare standards, Healthcare policy analyst policy planning and reforms can be reached at:

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