Schizophrenia is one of the commonest disorders. The name schizophrenia has been derived from the early findings that the illness is epitomised by the state of being detached by or being disconnected of the psychic functions.
Schizophrenic disorders are characterised in general by fundamental and characteristic distortions of thinking and perception, and also by inappropriate or blunted affect. The clear consciousness and intellectual capacity are usually maintained, although certain cognitive deficits may also evolve in the course of time.
So the disturbances involves the most basic functions that can give a normal being a feeling of individuality, uniqueness, and self -direction . The most intimate thoughts, feelings and the acts are often felt to be known to or to shared by other people and then the explanatory delusions are at work to influence the afflicted individuals thoughts and actions in the ways that are usually bizarre. So the individual may see himself or herself as the pivot of all that happens.
Schizophrenia is a kind of mental health illness that usually occurs in the stages of late adolescence or early adulthood. It is reasonably an uncommon condition which affect usually around 0.25 to 0.65 percent of the population in the United States according to the national institute of mental health (NIMH).
Also it’s kind of very important to diagnose this disorder as early as possible and seek help for the same as it can lead to severe illness, also it’s usually diagnosed between the age of 16 and 30 years, after the first episode of psychosis as it is an important step towards recovery of the individual.
Psychosis is a kind of mental abnormal condition of mind difficulties in what is real and what is not real or unreal. Although the research also shows that there are gentle changes in thinking, mood and the social functioning usually occurs before the first episode of psychosis. This disorder is very rare or say unusual in the young generation(children).
It is one of the most serious and frightening and complex kind of disorder of all the mental illnesses. No such other disorder arise as much anxiety as schizophrenia does, in public , media etc. Emotional symptoms of schizophrenic disorder are anxiety and depression.
This disorder has 3 types of symptoms. Firstly we’ll talk about the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, it’s a pathological excesses or bizarre additions to a person’s behaviour, it includes hallucinations which in layman’s language refers to seeing the things that are not really present. The person just hallucinates the things, auditory hallucination is one kind of hallucination which is most common and may have an affect on the person’s behaviour or thoughts.The patient hear different sounds or voices that are not really present, speak words, phrases, sentences hearing different voices is very common for this schizophrenic patient. They may hear the voices for a long term of their family or friends or relatives not noticed that etc., also like as if they are directly talking to the patient it’s kind of second person hallucination and if we talk to one another referring the patient as she/ he then it’s a third person hallucination.
Next form of hallucination is tactile hallucination, in this there is a form of tingling, burning on the skin. Next is somatic hallucination in which the patient thinks that something is happening inside the body as if the snake is crawling inside one’s stomach or something.
The other one is visual hallucination, it’s kind of a vague or unclear perception of colour, different visions of the people or the objects. Next is Gustatory hallucination, in this the food that the patient eats or drinks something that taste’s strange to the patient. Next is olfactory hallucination which refers to that the patient mayhas a peculiar smell of poison or smoke. Inappropriate affect refers to the emotions that are usually not suited to the situation.
Delusions refers to the false beliefs which are usually held on the inadequate grounds. A person that experience delusions may also believes that something is true when there is no such evidence for it . Like for instance they may believe that they are important, others are controlling them, someone is pushing them, they have supernatural or extraordinary powers or something.
The first type of delusion is delusion of persecution. It is most common , and people with this kind of delusion believe that they are being plotted against or spied on or slandered that is making false or damaging statements about someone or something, threatened or attacked.
Next is delusion of reference i.e the people attach some special and also personal meaning to the actions of other people or say objects or events. Next is delusion of grandeur, in this the people believe themselves as the unique persons that have special or supernatural powers or something. Next is Delusion of control, in this the person believes that their emotions , thoughts, behaviour, feelings and actions are controlled by other people.
Next is delusion of jealousy, in this the patient believes that their spouse is not faithful without any proof or say solid evidence. Next is the delusion of love, it is also called as erotomania, in this the patient believes that another person like say celebrity or person of higher reputation or status is in love with him/ her, this is although a rare or unique condition or situation.
If we talk about thenegative symptoms of schizophrenia, pathological deficits or bizarre reduction to a person’s behaviour, there are certain types of negative symptoms, starting with alogia or poverty of speech which refers to the reduction in speech level or speech content.
Next is blunted affect, in this many people with schizophrenia disorder usually show less anger, sadness, joy, happiness, or other feelings than most people do show such feelings. Next comes the slat affect, in this the person shows no such emotions at all. Next is avolition or apathy which means the ability to start or basically complete a course of action usually means or refers to lack of motivation in the individual.
Cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia means that it usually affect the thinking and memory which usually causes difficulty in making sense to some new information, finding solutions to difficult problems or issues, learning and remembering new things, paying attention to to something, making some important decisions, understanding what other people are saying. There are also three stages of schizophrenia; prodromal, active and residual.
The first stage i.e prodromal, it occurs before the detectable psychotic symptoms appear, during this stage the person usually go through various negative symptoms and cognitive changes that can lead to psychosis i.e the loss of interaction or contact with the reality.
The second stage is acute or active, in this the people manifest or reveal the characteristic symptoms of psychosis, which includes hallucinations, delusions and also paranoia.
The third stage or the final stage is residual, which usually occurs when a person experiences lesser or fewer symptoms of active or acute schizophrenia.
Also the other symptoms can be motivation, in this the person may reject the daily activities like caring and nurturing self. They may also experience catanoia i.e (the lack of ability to move in a normal manner). Next is emotional experience, in this the individual may answer or reply in a non suitable or weird manner or may not even reply to anything say sad or happy events or gatherings. Next is social life, in this the person may abolish or remove herself or himself socially as thinking that someone will hurt them. Next is communication, a person’s remarkable thought and speech patterns that can be even difficult for interacting with other people.
Although may individuals not even realise that they are not well. As the hallucination and delusions may be seen as very real or happening to the person. It can be developed when the particular genetic as well as theenvironmentalelementscooperates according to NIMH.
Schizophrenia is an everlasting or long term or even say life long condition or state. But also if an effective treatment is given to the patient then it can help the patient to manage the symptoms and avoid sever side effects or hospitalisation.
Also there is no certain diagnostic test or something like that , the doctor only examine the patient how he/ she behaves.
Also delayed treatment can worsen the prognosis, it’s a medical term which is used to predict the development of a disease including all the signs and symptoms for the same.