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Tulip and tourism industry

Post by on Wednesday, March 23, 2022

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Asia's largest tulip garden in Srinagar is all set to open for public and tourists from today. With over 15 lakh tulips of around 60 varieties blooming over 30 hectares of land, the garden promises to be a feast for the eyes of visitors. Tulip garden has become one of the main attractions for tourists in Kashmir.

Tulip botanically known as Tulipa gesenariana, ranks 1st amongst bulbous crops as far as garden display is concerned and amongst demanded temperate bulbous ornamentals of international flower trade. Tulips are bulbous-rooted perennials with 10–70 cm height. Tulip and tourism industry are now well known growing facts and even a common man knows the relation of tulips with tourism.

Premier and pivotal destinations in world are known for tulip and tulip festivals. One among them is Kuekenhof  in Netherlands which is known because of tulip tourism. Millions of people visit the place only to have aesthetic and recreational beauty through tulips as it is worlds largest destination for tulips.

Similarly Jardin Du Luxembourg in Paris, Everland In South Korea, Tonami Tulip Park in Japan, Corbett Gardens in Australioa, Emirgan Park in Turkey, Jinzhan Tulip Garden in China, Indira Gandhi Memorial Tulip Garden in Srinagar, Skagit Valley In North America, Munsiyari Tulip Garden in India are other destinations known for tulip festivals.

In India love for tulips is growing, that is why more and more places are planning tulip gardens for tulip festivals. In Himalchal Pradesh and even in Jammu province tulip gardens are planned to attract tourism. In Lutyens of our capital New Delhi, tulip cultivation is done for aesthetic and recreational beauty. 

In Kashmir tulip garden causes early arrival of tulips which automatically help tourism industry to grow. Stake holders associated with tourism like travel agents, transporters, hoteliers are benefited through tulip tourism. Besides this, commercial floriculture growers are benefited through demand of tulips in home gardening.  

 

Types of Tulips:

Various types of tulips available are as follows:

Standard

These are the traditional, old-fashioned tulips available in many forms and shades, either single or bi-colors. Standard tulips are easy to find and relatively inexpensive.

Parrot

Impressive, long-stemmed tulips distinctively fringed, feathery, ruffled, twisted, or curled petals in a variety of vibrantcolors.

Fringed

As the name suggests, fringed tulips display a fine fringe that gives the bloom a soft, frilly appearance. Colorsinclude pink, red, violet, yellow and white, with the fringes often contrasting to the bloom.

Rembrandt

These are showy, tall tulips with pale colors distinctly variegated or streaked with deep purple or reddish “flames.”

Fosteriana

This early bloomer displays huge blooms measuring up to 8 inches across, with short, sturdy stems that top out at about 10 inches.

Triumph

This is a cold-hardy, sturdy-stemmed variety available in a wide variety of solid and bi-colors.

Darwin hybrids

These are tall tulips in spectacular colors, mostly in the reddish-orange to red range. Varieties also include pink, white and yellow.

Kaufmanniana

Well known as water lily, an early bloomer with short stems and large blooms in various colors, most with contrasting centers. Blooms open flat in bright sunlight.

Viridiflora

These are also known as green tulips, this variety is distinctive for its various colors, with green markings. For example, yellow tulips with green stripes, creamy whitewith bluish-green mottling, or pale colors with feathery greenmarkings. 

Greigii

This is a midseason bloomer with big, colorful blooms streaked and spotted with maroon or brownishmarkings.

Double

The variety is also known as peony tulip for its short stems and lush multi-layered blooms.

Lily flowering

This is an elegant, late-spring bloomer withlong, pointy petals that arch outward at the tips. These are available in a variety of colors, including white, magenta, red, pink and yellow, often with contrasting edges.

Single late

Also known as cottage tulip. This is one of thetallest varieties (2-3) feet. The graceful blooms are oval or egg-shaped in pure, vibrant colors, often with contrasting edges.

 

Production practice

Mass multiplication of bulbous plants is one of the important factors for economic feasibility of commercial floriculture. To rapidly increase a particular variety of bulbous flower, it is necessary to use precision farming techniques through which natural rate of propagation can be increased. Conventional method of multiplication of tulips is by the division of bulb and bulblets whereas embryogenesis and tissue culture are the other methodsof multiplication.

 

Preparation for planting 

Bulbs grow best in soils of high fertility and the purpose of the long-term preparation of land for bulbs is to raise the fertility of the soil by generous manuring. It is generally agreed that high soil fertility should be maintained. The potash requirement is high for bulbs. Soil is tilled to a depth of 12 to 15 inches. Well drained soil is prerequisite for tulip growth and propagation to avoid bulb rotting due to pathogen infection and asphyxiation. Therefore planting tulips in raised beds particularly under wet areas is preferred and recommended. Soil should be made light and airyby adding compost and coarse sand.

 

Selection of site 

Most tulips do best under full sun, or at least under 6 hours ofbright sun each day. Some varieties will also grow in partial orfull shade. Therefore care has to be taken to select the site on the basis of variety to be opted.

Solar sterilisation: In this method the soil is covered with polyethylene for 7 to 8 weeks.

 

Chemical Sterilisation 

Hydrogen peroxide with silver

Add Hydrogen peroxide with silver 35 ml per liter of water and 1 L/ m2 is required for sterilisation. Planting can be done 6 hours after treatment. In market multi component complex formulation containing hydrogen peroxide and silver in nano form are available. 

Formalin

Formalin is used as well for soil sterilisation and the ratio for use is 1: 10 (formalin:water).After treatment the soil is covererd with plastic for 7 days followed by removal of traces with water at the ratio of 1 m2: 100 L of water.After  2 weeks of this planting can be carried out.

 

Bulb treatment 

Carbendazim 50% WP is an effective chemical fungicide which is used to treat bulbs to avoid fungal contamination of bulbs and rotting. The chemical is dusted on the bulbs before plantation. 1kg of fungicide is dusted on 20kg of bulbs. Also the bio-anti-fungal agent like Trichoderma formulation at recommended doses can also be used to treat bulbs before their plantation.

Various bio-fertilizers are now also available for use in the flower production. Other nutrient solubilising bacteria (ZnSB, PSB, KSB, Azotobacter) at the recommended doses can also be used as bulb dressers. The bio-fertilizers can as well be used assoil applications along with carriers (FYM, vermi-compost) at recommended doses.

 

Methods of planting 

For commercial growers, the bulbs can either be hand planted or plough planted. Through plough planting 8-10 inch wide furrows are set by either single furrow plough or ridger bodies. The depth of planting is an important consideration for high bulb planting. The ideal depth of 12.5-15cm is recommended for Tulipdepending upon size of the bulb. Tulip bulbs are planted 6 to 8 inches (15 to 20 cm) apart, measuring from the base of the bulb. Deep planting is done in areas with mild winter which helps tokeep bulbs cooler.

 

Time of planting

Tulips can be planted from October to January under specific climatic conditions ranging from open field to protected conditionsTulip bulbs should be planted in late fall, before the first winter frost under open field conditions.

 

Placement of bulb 

Bulbs are set firmly in place with the pointed end facing upwards. The hole should be flat on the bottom so that the flat base of the bulb is in contact with the ground. The bulbs are then coveredwith soil and watered thoroughly. Moisture is necessary for thebulbs to take root before winter. However, do not keep the soilsoggy or the bulbs would rot. After the ground freezes, apply about a six inch mulch of clean straw or leaves. Do not cover the bulbs before the ground freezes. The wet mulch could cause the bulbs to rot, and the mulch could also delay the freezing of theground.

Remove the winter mulch as soon as the shoots are 1-2 inches high. Remove blooms as soon as they fade in order to conserve energy for next year's flowers. Do not cut the leavesuntil they turn yellow and wither. These leaves are needed to produce nutrition for the next year's tulips. The crop fertilizers may be applied after the blooms fade. This is the critical time inwhich they make the most use of the fertilizer.

 

Irrigation

After planting of bulbs irrigate the area thoroughly. It is advised not to water again until leaves start growing. Tulips do not require excess moisture but initial watering at planting is important to trigger growth and do not water again throughout winter. Once the

 

leaves start growing in spring, soil moisture has to be maintained at field moisture level without making it muddy. Irrigation should be stopped when the leaves start withering.

 

Mulching

Mulching is done with straw to keep the soil cool. In areas with mild winters, mulching is laid immediately after planting,whereas in areas with cold severe winters, wait 3 to 4 weeks after planting before mulching to allow the roots to grow a little before the ground freezes.

 

Subsequent cultivation practices

It includes weeding, fertigation and pest management. These practices are carried out during subsequent growth phases after bulb planting.

 

De-blossoming or Deheading/Disbudding 

It is an important practice for the crop exclusively for bulb production. It involves removal of flower heads especially of stocks. Deheaded stocks yield a greater number of large bulbswith superior quality. The deheading consists of snapping-off or preferably cutting off with knife, the blooms just below the flowers. The best time for deheading is probably when the first indication of colour appears in the flowers. Usually deheading is

 

done after the first three weeks of bloom, before the petals fall off. Falling petals that get caught in the foliage of tulips cause theplant to mould and die off before it could nourish the new bulbsgrowing underground.

Growth retardants like Cycocel (500-1000ppm) and micronutrients are applied on foliage after reproductive phase is over. This enhances bulb size and number.

 

Nutrition 

Well rotten organic manure (FYM or sheep manure), zinc @ 2-3kg and Nitrogen 15kg is incorporated per acre in soilat the time of soil preparation. Half N2 is spill into two doses- half applied in spring when growth phase starts and the remaining half after flowering phase is over. Liquid applications of Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium (NPK) can be carried out by dissolvingNPK (10-10-10 gm/lit or 5-10-5 gm/lit) in 1 litre of water andthese graded fertilizers can be applied as long as the leaves appeargreen and vigorous.

 

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