The topic of the Prophet’s (PBUH) speech was comprehensive. It was designed to meet the demands of a good society. The message of Islam was completed, perfected and applied through the Farewell Khutba. He (PBUH) demanded from all those who were listening to him to deliver his message to all mankind.
The Farewell Khutba of Prophet Mohammed (PBUH) was indeed addressed to all mankind at all times and for all generations. It encompasses many aspects of life (general and specific). He (PBUH) laid down the foundation of morality, chastity, modesty, justice, equality, brotherhood and accountability. He (PBUH) abolished economic exploitation, human enslavement, paganism, transgression and all systems that contradict with the systems of Allah (SWT).
• “O people! Lend me an attentive ear, for I know not whether, after this year, I shall ever be amongst you again. Therefore listen to what I am saying to you very carefully and take these words to those who could not be present here today.”
• “Every right arising out of Homicide in pre-Islamic days is here forth waived. And the first such right that I waived is that arising from the murder of Rabi’ah Ibn al-Harith ibn’Abd al-Muttalib.”
• “O people! No doubt your God is one, and your father is one. All sprang from dust. Of a truth, the most noble of you in God’s sight is the most pious. Verily Allah is All-Knowing and well-Acquainted. And no Arab has any privilege over a non-Arab, except that based on piety.”
• “O people! Your lives and property shall be inviolate until you meet your Lord. The safety of your lives and of your property shall be as inviolate as this holy day and holy month”
• “Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim which belongs to a fellow Muslim, unless it was given freely and willingly. Do not, therefore, do injustice to your own selves”.
• “All interest obligation shall henceforth be waived. Your capital, however, is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer inequity. God has judged that there shall be no interest and that all the interest due to ‘Abbas ibn ‘Abd Al Mutallib shall henceforth be waived.”
• “O people! To you right belongs with respect to your women, and to your women a right with respect to you. Do treat your women well, and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers.”
• “O people! The devil has lost all hope of ever being worshipped in this land of yours. Nevertheless, he still is anxious to determine the lesser of your deeds. Beware of him for the safety of your religion”.
• “Whoever of you is keeping a trust of someone else shall return that trust to its rightful owner.”
• “Remember that you will indeed meet your lord, and that He will indeed reckon your deeds. So I do inform you.”
• “….. The pattern according to which the time is reckoned is always the same since Allah has created the Heavens and the Earth…” “The number of months in the Book of Allah is twelve…” “..Indeed the number of months in (the sight of) Allah is twelve, four of which are sacred; three are successive months, but Rajab is single and it is between Jamadi and Shabaan.”
• “O mankind! Ponder on my words which I now convey to you. I am leaving you with the Book of God and the Sunnah of His Prophet (PBUH). If you follow them, you will never go astray.”
• “O mankind! Harken well to my words. Learn that every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim, and that the Muslims constitute one brotherhood.”
• “Do not, therefore, do injustice to your own selves”
• “Those of you who are present here should pass on my message to those who are not here. It is possible that those who are not here may understand my teachings better than those who are present.”
The human rights in Islam were recognized, declared and executed for over 1400 years. If one reads the Farewell Sermon of the Prophet (PBUH), declaration of human rights finds a mention everywhere.
The Declaration is summarized as follows:
1. Freedom to all.
2. Sanctity of life, wealth and property.
3. Equality of all races.
4. Justice in front of the law and in front of Allah (SWT).
5. Women’s rights and obligations. They were to be treated as partners but not as subjects.
6. No exploitation or monopoly. The rich is NOT to be richer while the poor is to be poorer.
7. Rights of others are to be preserve and to be delivered.
8. People are to take this declaration seriously. They are to preach it and to practice it too, everywhere they go or move.
(The Author is Writer and Columnist)