Rose popularly known as queen as well as king of flowers is the word coined by Sappho 2500 year ago. Rose is the best ornamental plant having multipurpose uses from cut flowers, source of oil extraction, as garden plant etc. The rose name has been coined from a Greek word 'rhedon' meaning fragrance. Rose is known as the national flower of England, Iran, and the UK. In India it is cultivated commercially for cut flowers, both for traditional flower markets, and contemporary florist shops. Rose flowers without stem and loose flower petals are used in traditional markets for making garlands, for offering in temples, while the florist shops sell cut roses with stems mainly for bouquets and floral arrangements. In recent times, about 60 units have been established under joint ventures around Bangalore, Pune, Nasik, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Gurgaon (Haryana), Chandigarh and Saharanpur (Uttar Pradesh) for growing roses in greenhouses for export of flowers to Japan, Holland, Germany and other European countries.
Uses- Shrubs, climbers, hedges, edges, rockery, pot plants, cut flowers, source of rose oil and rose water, gulkand making. Rose fruit, as hip, is a rich source of vitamin C containing 2000 mg/100g fresh weight.
Type of roses
(A) Hybrid tea:
It takes 42-60 days for flowering after pruning. These have originated by crossing hybrid perpetuals with tea roses of china. It was Guillot(1867) who evolved the first variety of hybrid tea and named it La France.
Hybrid tea differs from other groups of roses as it is used as a cut flower as it fulfills all the requirements of a cut flower i.e. stalk length, bud size, flower size and excellent vase life.
White colour- June Bride, Tushar.
Red colour- Crimsom Glory, Happiness.
Pink colour- Confidence, First Prize.
Orange colour- Scarlet, Supasta.
Yellow colour- Basant, Goldent Giant.
It flowers 45-65 days after pruning. It is a cross between hybrid tea and dwarf polyantha.Poulsen (1912)evolved the first variety and named it rodhatte. This group possesses the characteristics of both parents. It produces flowers in clusters of better size and flowering in profusion.
White colour- Iceberg, Himangiri.
Pink colour- Queen Elizabeth, Junier-miss.
Yellow colour- All Gold.
Orange colour- Independence, Shola.
Red colour- Jantarmantar.
By colour- Red Gold.
This group is used to screen walls of buildings or arches as these produce long canes . The important varieties are :-Sympathy, Golden Shower ,Royal Gold, etc.
Miniatures or baby roses produce small leaves and flowers and are dwarf in nature having the quality of producing blooms which last long. Important cultivars are Cinderella, Peon, Sun Blaze, Party Girl etc.
(E) Shrub roses:
This is an intermediate group between bush and climber types with a habitat of continuous flowering. e.g. Delhi White Pearl, Cock Tail, Fountain etc.
This group is divided into three groups on the basis of budding height.
(A) Full standard: - When budding is done at one metre height these are called full standards. Hybrid teas are most suitable for this purpose. e.g. Avon, First prize, Crimson Glove.
(B) Half standard:- When budding is done at 45-60cm height these are called half standards. Floribunda are suitable for this purpose e.g. Pelt Princess, Iceberg etc.
(C) Weeping standards:-
When budding is performed at above 1.5 metre height. Climbers and ramblers are suitable for this purpose. E.g. Summer Snow, Casino, Prosperity etc.
The cross between R. wichuriana and R.multiflora led to evolution of ramblers. This group produces flowers in one flush that last for long duration e.g. Excelsa, Abortion etc.
Method of propagation
Both sexual and asexual method of propagation are followed in rose. However seed propagation is restricted to breeding of new cultivars. Hybrid Tea and Floribunda roses are generally propagated by budding, whereas climbers, ramblers, polyanthus and miniatures can be multiplied by stem cuttings., Inarching is also practised to multiply roses in West Bengal . Edouard rose (R. bourboniana) is the commonly used rootstock for budding in northern plains and R. multiflora in coastal areas, West Bengal, Bihar, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and submountainers regions of DehraDun and Nainital (Uttarakhand); Another rootstock Rosa indica var. odorata has now become quite popular in northern plains because of its tolerance to powdery mildew and high soil pH. Vegetative propagation is the proper means of multiplication for existing cultivars. Rooting media consisting of sand, perlite and peat moss at 1; 1:1 ratio is considered excellent for rooting .To prevent damping off disease adopted 3cm. cutting to cutting distance and 8cm row-to-row distance. Optimum watering is required for success for rooting. About one year is needed for rooting &safe budding.
Plants from which cuttings are taken should be around 5-7 year old. Semi hardwood cutting and hard wood cutting are used for propagation purposes. Use about 500-1000 ppm of IBA for accelerating root formation.
‘T’ budding is the commercial method for propagation of roses. Root stock of good quality is used on which T budding is practiced.
Roses require full sunlight or light at least for 6 hours preferably in the fore noon, if not during the whole day. The planting material should be free of insect pest and disease infestation and in no case it should be damaged. The root system should have at least three major roots. If the plants are lifted along with roots , care should be taken that the root system may not damage. The earth ball along which roots are lifted should be at least 10-15cm in diameter. Care should be taken that the root system is not exposed in any way. Digging a hole of around 30cm in diameter and 30cm deep should start the planting procedure. At the time of planting , soil should be moist I.e. Neither too dry nor too wet. About 7-10 days before planting,8-10kg of cow dung manure/farmyard manure/compost and bone-meal or superphosphate (225g) may be added to the soil in each pit; If the soil is heavy (clay), mix coarse sand in it to make it more porous.. Care should be taken that bud union is above the soil at least 5cm. Do liberal watering .Plants should be protected from strong winds. The soil should be well drained as plats do not thrive in waterlogged soil.The most important points to be considered before planting are;
1) Overcrowding, diseased and off type plant parts should be removed.
2) Dried leaves should be removed.
The plants which are purchased from a distant place are mostly transported from a distant place mostly with shriveled bark and during this period these lose some vigor. So as to re-hydrate a plant root system should be immersed in water for at least 24 hours before planting. Root pruning should be done so as to encourage root growth. The treatment of the root system with fungicides is recommended and for this purpose a solution containing 1gm Biltox in 1 liter of water is recommended.
Hybrid tea – 60-60cm or 30-30cm.
Floribunda – 75-75cm.
Miniature and polyantha- 30-75cm.
Standard roses- 1-1.5miter
Climber – 2-2.5 metre
It is done once in a year to remove dead, diseased, & over crowding branches. Floribunda needs moderate pruning, climbers & ramblers little pruning but hybrid tea needs heavy pruning of 3-4 eyes. The ideal time for pruning is oct. in northern plains & March –April in hills. Fungicidal paste of Bordeaux mixture should be applied on cut ends to prevent die back.
Pruning is an important cultural operation for maintaining proper growth and development of a plant. It ensures use of light nutrition in a proper way which is fed to a plant. The main objective of the pruning is to remove the unproductive branches.
The one year old plants when transplanted have to adapt in a new environment and it takes some time as the adjustment of root system and development of root system is a critical phase of plant life. Therefore rose plants should never be pruned till these are properly established. Thus in the first year rose plants are little thinned so as to give proper shape to a plant. The weak, crowded branches are removed from the base. The healthy shoots are pruned to half the length they possess. But care should be taken to prune in such a way that it cuts an eye in an outward direction.
When plants are grown under greenhouse conditions, the light penetration in leaf axils from which shoots arise is minimal. Thus after one month when plants are stable the bottom breaks are bent during day time for a specific period of time till first order laterals are developed. This is the most important operation in the first year under greenhouse conditions as it provides and develops a proper framework of a plant.
This is an operation before pruning, the aim of which is to withhold or curtail the supply of water to the bush for a period of 3-7 days depending on weather and age of the plant. By doing so the sap flow is reversed to the roots from the weak shoots which are to be pruned. The base of the plant is exposed up to 10-15cm deep & 20-30 cm in plant periphery. After 15 days the manure & fertilizer mixture is applied & watering is done.
Manure & fertilizer:-
5 kg FYM per square metre plus 60:40:30g NPK accommodating 4 plants is recommended. Rose is a nutrient exhaustive crop and requires primary, secondary as well as micro elements in a balanced way for proper growth and development. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potash are required in a balanced way, as deficiency of these elements will lead to reduction in yield and quality of flowers. Nitrogen plays a key role in enhancing qualitative as well as quantitative characteristics of rose through its influence on growth and development. Phosphorus encourages root development and thus influences flowering. Potassium leads to hardiness of plants, helps in wood ripen, and improves resistance to cold disease, especially powdery mildew. Calcium helps in root growth and helps in translocation of carbohydrates, magnesium forms dark green colour to leaves besides enhances phosphorus uptake, manganese acts as a catalyst for enzyme activity and its function can not be replaced by any other nutrient. Iron helps in chlorophyll formation. Boron promotes the calcium use efficiency and its deficiency causes shoot tip death and excessive bull head and malformation. Therefore lack of any nutrients has adverse effects on plant growth and development. At the end of the first flush of flowering oil cakes, preferably neem cake or castor cake @ 50g/plant or 15kg/100m2 is applied. Poultry manure or sheep/goat droppings can be applied @ of one litre/plant. The oil cakes are quick acting organic manures, as their N becomes available to plants within a week of their incorporation in the soil. Farmyard manure or cow dung manure may be used if oil cake is not available. Fertilizers can also be applied through foliar spraying as are quite effective roses. About a month after pruning, foliar spraying may be done about a month after pruning and repeated at 7-10 days intervals. It should stop when the flower buds start opening. Foliar spraying is not advisable in hot weather. Foliar application of micronutrients, eg. iron, magnesium and manganese corrects the deficiency of these elements. It can be prepared by adding ferrous sulphate (2g) and slaked lime (1g) in one litre of water, magnesium sulphate (2-3g) in one litre of water and manganese sulphate (2g) and slaked lime (1g) in, one litre of water.
Sucker arising from the base of the plant should be removed. They can be distinguished from the scion by the shape and size of the leaves.
DISBUDDING AND PINCHING
Disbudding and pinching or removal of side flower buds is an important operation in roses, to obtain long stemmed quality bloom.
Weeds should be removed as and when they arise. For monocot weeds glyphosate @ 0.5 kg /ha should be applied and as for dicot weeds with oxyfluorfen (0.5kg/ha) is effective.
Use of polythene mulching like black, white etc. or straw mulches on rose beds is recommended for suppressing weed growth and producing more flowers of better quality. It also helps conserve moisture.
Buds are harvested for local markets when outer one to two petals start unfurling and for distant markets when colored buds exist. For loose flowers full open flowers are harvested.
Immediately after harvesting flower stems should be dipped in cold water so as to remove field heat & minimize ethylene rise.
Flowers with stem length 60-90 cm apart with bud size 3-3.5 cm is considered ‘A’ grade.
Flower with stem length 40-50cm and bud size 2-2.5 cm is considered ‘B’ grade.
8 HQC @ 100ppm apart with sucrose 3 % is considered an ideal pulsing solution.
Green house cultivation:
A day temperature around 25`C & night 16`C is ideal for rose cultivation CO2 enrichment @ 1000 to 3000 ppm provides excellent results.
Open field- 40-80 stem/m sq.
Green house- 150-400 stem/m sq.