“Of all the aspects of social misery nothing is so heart breaking as unemployment,” said Jane Addams.
The present world is beset with many problems which have rendered the individual and collective life of the masses miserable and abject. Of all of them, unemployment is a curse which has a crippling effect on the society in the world making all other developmental projects redundant inspite of our tall claims for solving it.
Unemployment is a frequent economic malady encountered by every single nation of the world irrespective of their economic system and their overall development status.
Nothing has changed this sorry state of affairs despite expectations of the people by change of guard in various countries. The lower strata of the society continues to suffer with the pangs of unavailability of their basic needs of life pushing them in a morass of poverty and destitution. It results in making our cosmetic treatment of the problem futile and loss of money and material. The nature of unemployment prevailing in various developing and underdeveloped nations varies sharply to that of developed countries of the world.
The developing countries like India are facing unemployment known as structural unemployment arising from slow economic growth and high rate of population growth.
In contrast, the developed nations face unemployment mostly of Keynesian involuntary type and frictional type in which a worker moves from one job to another and spends time trying to find his/her ideal job. This type exists even when there is full employment. In Keynesian involuntary type, there lacks the enough aggregate demand in the economy to provide jobs, hence both leading to unemployment.
Unemployment is a serious problem. It indicates a situation where total vacancies for job are much less that the job seekers, where an unemployed person is unable to find an adequate or gainful job despite amenable and his capacity to work. Thus unemployment leads to enormous ruination of manpower.
In a country like India there is a sizable section of the unemployed population reasons being high population growth, slow growth in overall economy, seasonal occupation and fall in the cottage industry.
The situation has become so drastic that highly educated people are unable to find any suitable and satisfactory job. Government should lay stress on the technical education and job oriented courses which necessitates a thorough review of our educational policy based on the specific conditions of different regions of the country.
A large portion of India's population is engaged in agricultural sector but this sector unfortunately provides employment in its harvesting and plantation season only. Consequently, a big portion of population is without jobs during the off agricultural season. This situation leads to the fact that the establishment of more and more small scale and cottage industries in the country is a dire need of the hour which alone seems to address this grave situation.
Even industrialization cannot remove this menace fully where machinery largely replaces the manpower. This situation needs an in-depth consideration by planners and political leadership where the industrial growth will be directed on the principal that human force is employed in the productive activity which will bring prosperity and ensure peaceful atmosphere and self reliance in the country.