Parvaiz Ahmad Ahangar
Earlier,the Jammu Kashmir Power Development Department (JKPDD) was responsible for generation, transmission and distribution of electricity.
Subsequently, the Jammu Kashmir State Power Development Corporation (JKSPDC), a fully State Government owned company was established in 1999, and the operation and maintenance of existing generating stations and future generating stations were entrusted to this corporation.
Jammu Kashmir’s power demand is mostly met by Central Generating Stations (CGS) and States’ own resources. The States’ own installed generation capacity is 1,419.37MW comprising of 1,110MW Hydroelectric Power Stations, 198 MW gas turbine and 110.96 MW of SHPs.
State owned power is generated by JKSPDCL. PDD is responsible for making transmission and distribution in State.
As of October 2017, Jammu Kashmir had a total installed power generation capacity of 3,297.28 MW comprising various utilities.
Out of total installed power generation capacity 2,278.85 MW was contributed by Hydro power.
Being located in Himalayan region, Jammu Kashmir has tremendous hydropower potential but due to lack of sufficient funds and infrastructure, it remains unutilized.
Moreover, Government of India has not taken serious steps for utilizing such significant potential of the State.
Under the present installed capacity of Power, the Consumers are still facing under-voltage problems. The voltage should remain within acceptable limits.
Prolonged operation of equipment at voltages outside allowable range could adversely affect their performance and possibly cause damage to them.
The major cause of voltage sag in system is it’s inability to meet the demand of reactive power. The voltage at a particular point is function of reactive power.
Whenever there is perturbation in reactive power, the corresponding change occurs in voltage. To minimize this problem,we have to keep control on lagging load.
By lagging load we mean when inductive reactance exceeds capacitive reactance and therefore carries lagging current with respect to voltage across its terminals. Lagging load includes motors, transformers and chokes.
Voltage sag affects the power quality. It sometimes difficult to determine source of voltage sag or other power quality problems. Voltage sag that occur on utility side of power meter can either be human created or natural events.
The most common human created events are switching operations. The common natural events include: lighting, wind, trees falling on power-lines, squirrels and rodents, equipment failure and traffic accidents.
The problem of maintaining voltage within required limits is complicated by the fact that power system supplies power to vast number of loads and is fed from many generating units.
As the loads vary the, the reactive power requirement of transmission system varies.
Since reactive power cannot be transmitted over long distances therefore we are in need of maintaining voltage within appreciable limits for which we require special devices dispersed throughout the system this is in contrast to control of frequency which depends on overall system active power balance.
The proper selection and coordination of equipment for controlling reactive power and voltage are among major challenges of power system engineering.
Inorder to mitigate such issues, compensating devices are usually added to supply or absorb reactive power and thereby control reactive power balance in desired a manner.