The main ingredients of the dish are the trotters(or hooves) of Goat, Sheep etc; cooked with various spices. The origin of Paya is Central Asia which was introduced to South Asia by Mughals. The dish was added to the local cuisines by the Muslim cooks of Lahore, Hyderabad and Lucknow. Subsequently, Paya became popular all over present day India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. It is also available in restaurants serving India and Pakistan cuisines outside South Asia. It is especially very famous in Panjab region of Pakistan. It is nowadays mostly cooked in pressure cooker. Historically, when people used wood or coal as a fuel, women would start cooking this dish at night and slow cook it on coals until the morning. This dish has a soup-like consistency. A popular variation is Siri Paya, where Siri means head of an animal and Paya means the feet. It is considered a delicacy.
Bones contain an abundance of minerals as well as 17 different amino acids, many of which are found in broth as proteins like collagen and gelatin. Collagen is the main component of connective tissues like cartilage, ligaments, tendons, bone and skin. When collagen is simmered, it forms gelatin that give bone broth or stock it Jell-O-like consistency once it has cooled. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are complex carbohydrates that participate in many biological processes. They can attach to proteins in order to form proteoglycans, which are integral part of connective tissue and synovial fluid, the lubricant that surrounds the joint.
Glycine, an amino acid that is particularly abundant in bone broth plays a role in blood sugar regulation. Phosphorus deficiency has been shown to reduce muscle performance. Both phosphorus and magnesium are present in bone broth in modest amounts. It should be pretty obvious that the best way to get the nutrients necessary to build bone is from bone itself. Drinking bone broth provides all of the raw material for building healthy bones: calcium, phosphorus, amino acids and more. A deficiency of the raw materials for building bone can result in a number of different conditions. For example, osteoporosis is associated with reduced levels of collagen and calcium in the bones. As for joint health, lubrication by GAGs is the key to a full range of motion, whereby part of one bone can slide smoothly and painlessly over part of another. Sure, you could by expensive supplements containing glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate to keep your joints healthy, but why, when these and a host of other beneficial nutrients can easily be obtained from bone broth? After all, GAGs are not the only component of broth that improves joint health. Collagen supplementation has been shown to reduce joint pain in athletes.
Drinking bone broth with meals is an excellent to aid digestion. Glycine stimulates the production of stomach acid, which is essential for the proper digestion of food. The presence of gelatin in the gut also draws fluid into the intestine, improving gut motility and supporting healthy bowel moments. Numerous components of bone broth influence the nervous system. The healthy fats in bone broth, particularly if made with marrow bones, provide a source of fuel and raw material for the brain. After all, more than 60 percent of the human brain is composed of fat. Bone broth can also improve mood and sleep.
While ancient folk wisdom suggests that bone broth can cure the common cold, modern science has confirmed that the components of bone broth do indeed influence the immune system. A south American proverb says “good broth will resurrect the dead”. While this is certainly a stretch of the imagination, the ability of broth, and chicken broth is particular , to treat the common cold has long been touted as ancient folk wisdom. Scientists at the University of Nebraska sought to test this folklore in 2000 and found that in vitro(in a petri dish), some components of chicken soup were able to inhibit the migration of innate immune cells called neutrophils, effectively acting as an anti-inflammatory that could, in theory, reduce symptoms of illness. Whether this effect occurs in vivo(in a living organism) is still unclear, but this preliminary data suggests that our ancestors may have been onto something.
Evidence of the existence of soup can be found as far back as about 20,000 BC and it’s well accepted that broth of some sort was, and remains, a staple in many traditional cultures. Unfortunately, many modern convenience, cultures have lost the practice of whole-animal eating, and the old-age tradition of having a pot of broth constantly simmering on the hearth has been lost in favour of modern convenience, microwaves, and highly processed canned soups. Bringing bone broth back into the modern diet offers a simple and delicious means of obtaining the nutrition from parts of the animal that traditional culture is prized. To summarize, bone broth has an incredible number of potential health benefits and is rooted in a long history of human use. It makes an excellent addition to any diet.