Popularly known as queen as well as king of flowers, Rose, a word coined by Sappho 2500 year ago, is the best ornamental plant having multipurpose uses.
The rose name has been coined from a Greek word rhedon meaning fragrance. Rose is known as the national flower of England, Iran, and UK.
In India it is cultivated commercially for cut flowers, both for traditional flower markets as well as contemporary florist shops. Rose flowers without stem and loose flower petals are used in traditional markets for making garlands, for offering in temples, while the florist shops sell cut roses with stems mainly for bouquets and floral arrangements.
In recent times, about 60 units have been established under joint ventures around Bangalore, Pune, Nasik, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Gurgaon (Haryana), Chandigarh and Saharanpur (Uttar Pradesh) for growing roses in greenhouses for export of flowers to Japan, Holland, Germany and other European countries.
Rose petals are used to obtain rose oil and rose water. Bulgarian rose oil is used in soap and cosmetic items. The species which are used to obtain rose oil are Rosa damascena, R.borboniana, R.alba and R.gallica. R.damacena is the highest rose oil yielder.
As far as Indian perfumery is concerned, R.damascena and R.borboniana are used for extraction of rose oil. Bulgaria is the largest producer of rose oil.
The oil content of R.damascena is 0.057 to 0.058%, R.borboniana 0.040 to 0.042% and that of R.teplitz is 0.03 to 0.035%. Rose water is another product extracted from rose petals and it has multiple uses as it is used in eye drops, drinking water, and is sprinkled on important occasions for its aroma.
In India 6000 ha are under rose cultivation for oil extraction purposes. The cultivation is confined to UP, Rajasthan, J&K and HP. UP has alone 4500 ha under rose cultivation for this purpose. The annual production of rose oil from India is 80 to100kg. Rajasthan concentrates on production of rose water only.
Important varieties: Noorjahan and Ranisahiba for plains, Jwala and Himroz for hills.
Propagation: The commercial method of propagation of roses for oil extraction purpose is through cuttings.
Fertilizer application: For growing rose for oil extraction purpose a nutrient dose of 160:80:80 kg NPK is recommended. The commercial life of these roses is long, therefore nutrient management should be given to each bush at 20-30cm depth around the periphery of the plant. In plains nitrogen is given in three split doses in May, July and September.
Flowering & Harvesting: Flowering under northern plains starts during October - November and lasts up to March whereas in hills flowering starts in June and lasts during September to October.
The harvesting of flowers should be done early in the morning as the percentage of volatile oils decreases with the advance of day. Hand picking is the common method of harvesting. Care should be taken to distill flowers immediately as these lose aroma within 24 hours after opening.
Processing & yield: Steam distillation is one of the best methods for extraction of rose oil & water. Fresh flower petals are put into a churning tank and stirring is done by mechanical stirrer till slurry is formed. The slurry distillation is done to obtain rose water which takes four hours. The rose water is then processed in a cohabitation tower for recovery of water and oil from packed columns. The yield is around 4 to 5t per ha which gives 1.3 to 1.6 kg per annum rose oil. This type of yield is possible in mild temperate like Kashmir. In plains the yield is 1.2 to 2 t/ha with oil recovery of 0.3 to 0.4 kg per annum per ha.
Composition of rose oil: The main constituents of rose oil are citronellol 40-65%, gerenol, neural, phenyl alcohol, small amount of esters, waxy constituent stearoptene, trans-rose-oxide, etc.
Diseases and pests
It is a fungal disease caused by diploida roseaum. The disease causes death of a plant from tip towards bottom. After pruning if cut ends are not covered with fungicidal paste, the fungus attacks and causes drying of pruned shoots. Browning or blackening of pruned portion is the initial symptom of die back and with the advancement the whole plant dies. The attack starts at the tip, enters the whole stem, plant and to the roots. The old growths are more affected compared to new growth.
· The pruned portion should be immediately covered with the fungicidal paste containing four parts of copper carbonate, four parts of red lead and five parts of linseed oil.
· Use disinfected secateur.
· Use of 0.2%captan or mancozeb immediately after pruning.
Tolerant varieties to die back:
· Hybrid tea: Angel Bells, Bhim, Arjun, Dr B.P.PAL, First Prize, Mercedes, etc.
· Floribunda: Delhi Princess, Else Poulsen, Jantar Mantar, Suchitra, etc.
This is another dangerous disease which causes great loss to roses. It is caused by fungus sphaerotheca pamnnoravar. rosea. This disease occurs under warm and humid day temperatures followed by cool nights. Powdery mildew severely affects leaves though other plant parts are as well affected badly. Purplish lower side of leaves with whole powdery growth of the fungus are indication or symptoms of powdery mildew.
As far as flower buds are concerned, it fails to open. The vegetative parts are covered by this fungus. It is likely seen severely between November to March.
Powdery mildew can be controlled by spraying Sulphur dust but it causes Sulphur injury. Thus, use of systemic fungicides like benomyl is effective. Repeated application of fungicides during adverse conditions. It should be scheduled at a 15 days interval. Destroying and burning of inflected shoots out of the rose growing place is another precaution to be taken at the end of season. Collection and burning of leaves are preventive measures of powdery mildew.
Examples of powdery mildew resistant varieties:
Hybrid Tea: Avon, Glazer, Gladiator, Happiness, Fragrant Gold, Banjaran, Belle of Punjab, First Prize, Surabi, Montezuma, Super Star. Black Lady, Dutch Gold, Neelam, American Heritage, Double Delight, Garden Party etc.
Floribunda: Deepika, Jantar Mamta, Shola, Merecedes, Queen Elizabeth, Pundit Nehru, Sadabahar, Shrinagar, Zanibra, Zorina, Playboy, Summer Snow, Banjaran, Sea pearl.
It is another serious problem of roses caused by fungus diplocarpon roséa. It is as well-known as leaf blotch, leaf spot and star sooty mold. It affects crops badly under temperate regions. Black circular spots, 2-12mm in diameter, occur on the upper surface of leaves and expand, both ways on leaf tissues, surrounding the affected portion and becoming yellow due to chlorosis and leaf fall. Petals may face red spots.
Leaves should not be kept wet at high humidity for 7 to 12 hours. Removal of leaves infected with fungus, overloading of branches and plants should be avoided.
Ganga, Glazer, Hans, Jawahar, Tiara, American Heritage, Avon, Belle of Punjab, DR.B.P. PAL, Confidence, Gladiator etc.
Rust is a major problem in roses under warm and humid areas. The fungus namely phragmidium mucronatam is responsible for rust of rose, formation of reddish pustules on leaflets, chlorotic spots on leaf surface are the symptoms of rust, in severe infection leaf fall takes place.
Combined use of saprop (0.2%) and bayleton (0.15%) are effective in controlling rust. Spraying of zineb @ 2000 ppm at 15 days interval helps in controlling this disease.
This disease is caused by bacteria agrobacterium tumefaciens. Galls are produced on stem, roots. The bacteria enter through the wounded portions.
Use of elite planting material, care during cultural operations and destroying of infected plants are the ways to control cram gall.
It occurs mostly under greenhouse conditions. Mosaic pattern, molting, chlorotic areas in mid ribs of leaflets, rings are the symptoms of rose mosaic.
Use of sanitated budding, cutting, root stock is the measure to avoid this infection.
Green peach melon, potato and rose aphids are those aphids which attack rose plants. These feed on tender shoots, buds and flowers. These suck plant sap. Attacked flowers become malformed.
Spray malathion, metasytox or rogor 0.1%. Spraying should be done before insects attract as this may give rise to viruses.
These inhabitat on the undersurface of tender leaves and suck sap. Buds, flowers, fleeked streaks and forms dark areas and ultimately rotting takes place. Leaves show a silver appearance.
Lack of water management and overheating are the main causes of thrip infestation. Maintaining a cool and humid climate helps in controlling thrip problems. Spray of vertimex 0.25% for 2-3 weeks controls this problem.
Jassids are sucking insects which suck the sap of leaves and lead to yellowing or whitening of the affected areas.
Spraying 0.03% parathion or 0.1%metacid or soil application of 8% thimet are control measures.
Termites or white ants cause damage to the roots and the underground plant looks healthy on the upper surface and suddenly falls down.
Use of 5% aldrin in a pit before planting is one control measure. Use of termiseal controls termites.
The attack can be identified by seeing reddish brown encrustations on the lower portion of the old stem.
Spray of metasystor or rogor @ 0.2%controls this problem. Granular insecticides like phorate or carbofuran are as well effective.
These attack buds and flowers. The insect sucks the sap of a bud and restricts its opening.
Spray of 0.1 % navacrom or funigation with methyle bromide is effective.
These attacks due to lack of pruning management as these enter the un-pasted pruned area and nest there, thus inviting die back fungus due to digged stems.
· Protect the pruned area with fungicidal paste.
· Apply a few drops of rogor on the wasp affected area for killing them.
Root knot nematode. It causes root galls, and can be identified by decreased shoot growth and leaf chlorosis. Flowering affects very badly.
Soil fumigation with 2-3ppm dichlorpropane and 1-3 dichlorpropane per 50 liters per hectare for 4-6 weeks.