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Professionalism in planned landscaping: Concept and implementation

Post by on Sunday, May 8, 2022

First slide

We are all familiar with humanized landscape areas in which everything seems to be working well together. We say that a certain town is delightful or picturesque, what we probably mean is that we subconsciously sense certain qualities of compatibility that appeal to us. Other places of disorder, confusion, pollution, bad taste or poor planning are ugly and bother us. If we were traveling, these would be bypassed. We would prefer not to live in or near them. Thenegative qualities of such places are those we would attempt to eliminate in any re-planning process, the positive qualities are those we would strive to retain. It would seem to follow as a guiding principle that to preserve or create a pleasing site, all the various elements or parts must be brought into harmony. If the completed project seems to blend with the landscape, it is the happy result of an inspired design rather than the mistaken aim of an uninspired designer.

 

Natural forces, forms and features

If our planning is basically a studied attempt to improve our living environment, it would seem only logical to proceed in full awareness of the sweep of the sun, the lair currents, the peaks and hollows of the earth, rock and soil strata, vegetation, lakes and streams, watersheds and natural drainage ways. If we disregard them, we will engender countless unnecessary frictions and costs and preclude those experiences of fitness and compatibility that can bring so much pleasure and satisfaction to our lives.

 

Major landscape elements

There are dominant natural landscape forms, features and forces that we can alter little. We must accept them and adapt ourselves and our planning to them. These unchangeable elements include such topographical forms as mountain ranges, river valleys and coastal plains, such features as precipitation frost, fog, the water table and seasonal temperatures and such forces as winds, tides, sea and air currents, the process of growth, solar radiation and gravity.

As a landscape planner we should recognize their potential effect on our planning and then, if we are wise, shape our plants in full awareness and response to the constraints and possibilities. Such considerations are fundamental to the placing of cities, zoning of a community, alignment of highways, the sitting of industries or the orientation and layout of a single home or garden.

 

Minor landscape elements

There are also minor landscape elements that we as planners can modify - such as hills, groves and streams. In their planned development there are four general courses of action.

Site

For every site there is an ideal use.

Site Selection: If we are concerned with wedding a proposed function to a site, let us first be sure that the parties are compatible. There are structures that seem foreign to their location. These structures may be excellent and well planned; the total result is disturbing and unpleasant.

It would seem obviously foolish, for instance, to situate:

?A school fronting on an arterial traffic way.

?A roadside restaurant with zero approach sight distance.

?A shopping centre without sufficient parking space.

An important function of a planner is to guide right selection of site for a project.

Alternative sites: As advisers, we must be able to weigh the relative merits of alternative situation. First, clearly we must know what we are looking for. We must list those site features that we consider necessary or useful for our proposed project.Having narrowed our choice to several alternative tracts of land, we will then analyze them in detail.An ideal situation is the one that, with least modification, must fully meet the project requirements.

Site analysis: After the site selection, we have two concerns which may be dealt with simultaneously: The programme development and Analysis of the site.

Programme development

To accomplish this aim, to plan a project intelligently, we must first understand its nature. It is essential that we develop a comprehensive programme. By research and investigation we must organize a precise and detailed listing of requirements on which we may base our design. For this we may consult all those persons interested in the project and draw freely upon their knowledge and views – with the owners, with potential users; with maintenance personnel; with planners of similar understanding; with our collaborators; with anyone who can contribute constructive thought. We will look to history for applicable principles. We will try to combine the best of the old with the best of the new.

Analysis of the site

While programme requirements are being studied, we must investigate and analyze the selected location, not only the specific area contained within the proper boundaries but the total site, which includes the environment to then horizon and beyond.Surveyor shall do all work necessary to determine accurately the physical conditions existing on the site. He should prepare a map of the given area.

Information required:

1. Title of survey, property location, scale, north point and date.

2. Tract boundary lines, courses and distances, calculate and show acreage.

3. Building setback lines.

4. Names and locations of existing streets on or abutting the tract.

5. Position of buildings and other structures.

6. Location of all site construction including walls, fences, roads, drives, curbs, walks.

7. Location of water bodies, streams, springs, swamps or boggy areas and drainage ditches.

8. Outlines of wooded areas.

9. Road elevations.

10. Ground surface elevations.

11. Location and direction of drainage, manholes, telephone lines, electricity lines etc.

Garden features we must know

1. Annual flower bed.

2. Avenues.

3. Arches.

4. Beds.

5. Borders – (Herbaceous/Annual mixed/mixed border).

6. Carpet bedding.

7. Climbers.

8. Conservatory or fernery.

9. Edging.

10. Fences.

11. Forcing house.

12. Glass house/ Green house.

13. Garden adornments (Bird baths, statues, topiary, acquarium).

14. Hedges.

15. Kitchen garden.

16. Lawn.

17. Paths.

18. Palm house.

19. Pergolas.

20. Pot plants/house plant/ indoor plants.

21. Roads.

22. Roof garden.

23. Rosary.

24. Rockery (Alpine + non-alpine).

25. Shrubbery.

26. Steps.

27. Trees.

28. Terrace gardening.

29. Walks.

Important features

1. Paths: Smallest type of road for one person to walk with Width of  90-120 cms. These can include:

1) A general paths.

2) Brick paths.

3) Stone paving.

4) Crazy paving.

5) Grass paths.

6) Pebbles.

7) Tan bask.

8) Wooden planks, tiles.

Walks: These are meant for 23 persons to walk and should have the width of 180 cm.

Roads: These are meant for motor or other heavy traffic. The width of roads should be 10-20 feet.

Fences: Anything that separate your garden from surroundings or which separate one part of garden from other. These can include living fence and Non-living fence.

Beds: Any piece of land required to grow any type of plant. Lawn is a type of bed but specialized.

Hedges: Plants and shrubs planted at regular intervals to form a continuous screen.

Carpet bedding: Covering an area (a bed) or a series of beds with dense, low growing herbaceous plants according to a set design.

Annual flower bed: A specialized type of bed in which we grow plants that complete their life-cycle in one season.

Borders: Beds are more in length than breadth and contain plants of a heterogeneous characters.

Edging: Lining of boarders of flower beds, paths, lawn and shrubbery with brick, concrete, living plants.

Lawns: Special type of beds on which a person can walk. These are defined  green carpet for a landscape.

Shrubbery: Shrub: woody, semi-woody or herbaceous perennial plants, has got several braches from the base of plant and no distinct truck and not more than 5-6´ high.

Trees: A woody plant with a spreading crown. Any woody perennial attaining a height of more than 4 metres and upto 7 metres.

Climbers: Plants with special structures to climb on supports. These are used on arches and pergolas in city and as screening premises from adjacent houses.

Avenues: Rows of trees on roadside to provide shade and beauty.

Terrace gardening: Terrace raised space of ground constructed around a dwelling house or at corner of garden or on sides of hill.

Roof gardening: On roofs of houses and the balcony (Cacti, orchid, dahlia, Chrysanthemum etc) limitations.

Colour: It is the visual sensation produced by different wavelengths of light.

Warm and cool colours: Reds, oranges and yellows stimulate, attract and excite. We associate these colourswith fire, danger, warmth, sunlight. Green and blue are soothing, cool and restful. We associate them with grass, water and sky.Artists usually use cool and warm colourstogether to create a sense of balance and unity.

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