Commercial floriculture is profitable, activity known worldwide and is an industry having around 60 billion dollar annual trade. Biggest commercial floriculture market is at Alsmeer Netherland which was started by civil society namely Flora Hollanda and now 191 countries are involved in this trade with an annual turnover of above 50 billion US dollars with a growth rate of 10%.
Around 3 lakh ha are under commercial floriculture in India but contributes only 0.5% of export due to huge domestic demand. 5 leading states in flower acreage include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu,Maharashtra. Modern floriculture is about 700 ha, 70% of which is in greenhouses and 90% of this is under roses only.
Aesthetic taste has developed among people in our country as well as in J&K. Landscape gardening is now an integral part of home gardening in cities as well as in rural areas. Green concept has now developed to an extent that seeds and plants are now imported from European countries.
Besides this turf grasses are now in great demand. People are importing turf grasses as well as ornamental plants for landscaping and pot culture from other States. National high way projects and smart city projects has great demand of ornamental flora.
As per the report of Assocham only pot plants worth 2 to 3 crores are annually imported in Kashmir from other states. This indicates the scope and potential of landscape gardening in Kashmir. This draws an attention to develop organized commercial units which in turn will help in entrepreneurship development and livelihood security aiming empowerment of women, youth and small land holding farmers.
In Kashmir local demand for high way avenue planting, developing parks, home gardens and public gardens is an emerging as well as identified sector which can ensure livelihood security of unemployed youth. Home gardening is a new emerging trend in Kashmir where average gardener charge per house/hotel/office having an area of 500m2 ranges from Rs 3000 to 4000 for two visits excluding the planting charges.
Kashmir valley depends on other states for potted plants and demand is met with turn over of Crores annually. North Eastern Regions ( Sikkim, Gangtok, Kalimpong etc) introduce, produce and supply temperate ornamental pot plants to other states. Camelia, Azalea, temperate Orchid plants, cyclamen, Tuberous Begonia etc are propagated and supplied to northern states including Jammu & Kashmir and H.P with the Annual turn over of Rs 2-3 Crores. Uttrakhand ( Bheental, Kainchimorh, Nochukiyataal and Nanital areas) is progressing for supply for pot plants especially pelargonium, Primula, Calceolaria etc to Delhi and allied areas.
Potential of ornamental nursery is that it give returns of Rs 5 lakhs from an area of 2 kanals which indicates its scope in small land holding and efforts has to be taken to give it a practical shape for sustainable livelihood security.
1) Industrial land availability for ornamental nursery in each district.
2) 100% assistance for infrastructure
3) Quality plant material.
4) Subsidy on transportation and packaging material.
5) Recognisation of produce.
Initiatives which can be taken:
A) Developing nursery cluster in each district.
B) Delimitate activities on cluster approach
C) Kisan Card facility to growers.
D) Capacity building and technical back up in propagation.
E) PQ protocol to be eased so that procurement of elite varieties can be ensured.
Role Of Government
Developing cluster based production module district wise.
The establishment of demonstration cum training centers in each district will provide hands on technological training and know- how.
Hands-on practical experience, demonstrations and skill development training for propagation, production and post harvest management.
Capacity building of start-ups with an aim to conduct field exercises and support through up scaling of skill. .
Facilities for new trade and technology programs for long term assured returns.
Linkage with marketing chain at UT, State And National Level.
Training, demonstration and transfer of technology to skilled and non-skilled people and entrepreneurs.
Disseminating a message through demonstration units on profitability of trade within a small area.
Awareness /technicalities stakeholders
Stakeholders must know the activities they have to carry for high returns both short term and long term.
Bulbous crops in local and national demand
Tulip,Hyacinth, Dutch Iris,Rananculus, Freesia, Fritillaria, Oxalis,Calla Lily and Daffodils are in great demand at local and national level. Propagating these will help them to catch the market with good returns.
Glossy Abelia , Lemon Verbena, False Indigo , Butterfly Bush Barberry ,English Box wood, Chinese Trumpet vine, Flowering Quince , Clematis , Euonymous, Forsythia, Hibiscus,Hydrangea, Hypericum, Jasminum, Bay Laurel, Glossy/Chinese Privet , Japanese privet ,Common Privet , Mohania ,, Myrtle , Sweet Olive , Oleander , Virginia , Mock Orange ,Himalayan Cherry , Cherry Laurel , Edward Rose , Vanhouttei Spiraea , nglish lilac , Japanese Maple, Silk Tree , Indian bean tree , Juda’s Tree, Himalayan cedar , Hazelnut , London Plane tree , Pinus, Flowering apricot , English oak , Weeping willow , Cork screw willow , Ginkgo,Chinese Privet etc are examples of temperate floral wealth having demand.
Azalea,Hedera,Pot Chrysanthemum,Begonia Tuberous,Bulbous Potted Plants (Tulip, Narcissus, Hyacinth,liliy) ,Calceolaria,geranium,Fushia, Abies, etc are pot plants in huge demand and need to be propagated.
Ageratum, Aster, Antirrhinum, Balsam, Celosia, Cosmos, Candytuft, California, Poppy, Carnation, Galliardia, Gazania, Holly hocks, Heliehrysum, Larkspur, Marigold, Panoy, Phlox, Petunia, Salvia, Verbena, Zinnia, Gypsophilla etc. are the annuals which are in huge demand and a calendar of raising nursery for summer and winter season annuals need to be worked out.
Propagation of annuals.
Mother block of shrubs and trees.
Hi tech Propagation units.
Seasonal flowering plants.
Dormancy is a condition where viable seeds will not germinate even when the environmental conditions are favorable for germination.
Methods used for overcoming dormancy
A) Seed scarification with sulphuric acid or mechanical means.
B) Hot water treatment of seed.
C) Seed stratification.
Propagation through cuttings
A plant part can develop into a complete plant when detached and planted under suitable conditions. Detached parts are known as cuttings.
Hardwood cuttings: Mature, dormant hardwood stems; woody species ,Dormant season taken in late fall to early spring ,10-76 cm with at least 2 nodes and using rooting hormone IBA/NAAat 2500-5000 ppm
Semi hardwood cuttings: Partially mature wood on current year’s growth taken in late spring to late summer ,7.5-15 cm using rooting hormone @ IBA or NAA at 1000-3000 ppm generally,
Soft wood cuttings: New, soft succulent growth opted during late winter to early summer ,7.5 – 12.5 cm using rooting hormone IBA or NAA at 500 – 1250 ppm generally.
Herbaceous cuttings: Succulent stems from non-woody plants ,7.5 – 12.5 cm using rooting hormone IBA or NAA at 500 – 1250 ppm.