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Carnation: Multi-utility ornamental crop

Post by on Saturday, August 21, 2021

First slide
Carnation cultivation is confined to 2000 B.C. The name of the genus is derived from a Greek word Diose i.e divine, anthos  i.e. flower. Similarly the species name caryophyllus is derived from the Greek word caryon meaning nut and phyllon meaning leaf. The common name carnation is as well derived from a Greek word coronation as it was earlier used for decoration of the crown of Greek athletes.
Kashmir, north-eastern states are suitable for carnation cultivation.  Carnation is a ranked cut flower in international trade. The light coloured carnations contain benzyl benzoate, phenylate alcohol, benzyl salicylate & methyl salicylate in an excellent proportion and are thus used for oil extraction.
Plant characteristics:-
Carnation is herbaceous, annuals, & perennial in nature. The height of the plant ranges from 0.45 to 1m & is very delicate. The leaves are succulent, spiny shaped with a long keeled appearance. The flowers are born solitary as well as terminally. Bracts at the base & cylindrical calyx are the characteristics of a flower. The leaves of the plant are opposite.
Classification of carnation:
There are three major groups of carnation flower:-
1) Single.
2) Semi-double.
3) Double.
Single groups can be recognized by 5 petals, Semi doubles 30-60 petals & doubles with 100-350 petals. Singleness & semi double flowers are due to monogenetic & heterozygous character respectively. The gene responsible for doubless is called Da gene.
Standard- Red Corso,Espana ,Scania Sole ,Limara etc.
Sim-                  White Sim ,Arthur Sim ,William Sim,Crowley Sim etc.
Climate: -
Carnation requires around 200C  day & 100C night temperature for proper growth & development. The CO2 concentration 2000 ppm inside the green house is considered ideal for carnation.
Carnation is declared as a quantitative long day (14 hr) plant; it requires ample sunshine (approximately 21.5k lux for at least 8hr in a day). Photoperiod plays an important role in maintaining growth and flowering to attain 18 pairs of leaves per shoot for flowering. It is necessary to provide adequate light periods under protected conditions. During the early phase i.e. when plants change from vegetative to reproductive stage it is the duration of light needed for proper growth and development. Bud development depends upon light intensity. Long day conditions are provided to plant for 4-6 weeks.
Temperature: -
The best area for carnation cultivation includes such areas which have high light intensity during winter months followed  by mild months of summer. High light and day temperature during reproductive periods is detrimental as it leads to a serious problem of calyx splitting. The maintenance of temperature to 10 0C night and 20 0C day temperature gives best results in terms of colour, size & length of a flower. The optimum temperature for standard carnation is 18°-23°C.
CO2 fertilization: -
CO2 from 500-1000 ppm is recommended for excellent carnation production. However the CO2 fertilization should be done during day time when solar light is optimum. Therefore CO2 fertilization in the greenhouse should be done one hour after sunrise and one hour before sunset. The doors and windows should be closed at the time of fertilization.
One of the most correlated factors associated with quality of CO2 fertilization are;
1) The source of CO2 should be free of sulphur as when sulphur reacts with O2 it forms SO2 and when it reacts with moisture it forms sulphuric acid which burns leaves.
2) It should be free of CO as it is detrimental to plant health.
Role of PGR:-
After pinching the use of GA3 @ 100ppm followed by spraying of GA3 again after one month of first application enhances the flower stalk length and bloom size. The quality of a flower depends upon the size of stem.GA3 accelerates the stem growth through its influence on cell elongation. Care should be taken to manage nutritional requirements as per the plant growth.
Method of Propagation:-
Carnation is propagated through seeds and vegetatively through cuttings.
The propagation of carnation through seeds is restricted to annual groups. The seeds are sown in well prepared nursery beds and covered with straw or any other such material to aid germination. Germination takes place within one month and transplanting is carried out after 25-30 days at 4 true leaf stages. At 20C seed germination is maximum. Seed treatment with phenyl mercuric chloride @ 27gm per seed improves the rate of seed germination.
        Stem cuttings from disease free plants terminal in nature 10-15 cm long are ideal for propagation. Such cuttings are opted which have not produced flowers. Sand is used as rooting media. The rooting hormone treatment of IBA @ 250-500 is given to accelerate rooting. It takes around one month for rooting & then cuttings are transferred to a hardening chamber containing an overhead fogging system. Misting is adjusted as per the outdoor climatic condition.
Rooting media:-
Any root media used for carnation should be well drained, be free from insect pest and disease infestation, should hold the plants well and should provide conditions for root proliferation. The commonly used rooting media for carnation are sand, vermiculite, coca peat etc. The rooting media which can hold 19-35% soil moisture 60% porosity and 30-40% air content is suitable for carnation cultivation. Percentage of rooting depends upon the quality of media.
Time of propagation:-
November to March is the best season for propagation. However, the time of propagation is adjusted on the basis of flower requirement. Carnations can be propagated round the year provided temperature inside the polyhouse is maintained at 20°C with 75-80% relative humidity. In winter 100 watt bulbs can be hung 1m above the cuttings, 1.5m apart during night.
Rooting hormones:-
Rooting is accelerated by treating cuttings with rooting hormones like NAA @ 1000ppm or IBA@ 200ppm can accelerate rooting. The concentration determines the method of application which may be a quick dip or long dip method.
The rooting media should be sterilized by using heat, fumigation or any other convenient method so as to get elite planting material.
Treatment of rooted cuttings with Zineb is useful against the Fusarium infection. For rust infection fundazol @ 0.2 % is recommended. Before planting the treatment of cuttings with fungicide helps in prevention of Rhizoctonia.
Climate & rooting of cutting:-
Proper management of the environment under controlled conditions is necessary to get success in rooting. The optimum light, temperature, heat, CO2 concentration and other related aspects are very important for enhancing rooting of cuttings. The incrementation of temperature from 20 0C to 25 0C during the first 10 days causes maximum success in rooting. Maintenance of misting, low temperature, high humidity etc. helps in proper rooting of cuttings.
Soil and climate: -
 The texture of soil plays a vital role in carnation production. Since the root system is sensitive to poor drainage it needs loose & friable conditions. Therefore, soil to be used for the cultivation of carnation should be well drained, well aerated & sterilized. pH of 6-7 is ideal . The ideal soil for the cultivation of carnation is considered sandy loam soil.
        As far as climate is concerned carnation cultivation is confined to temperature climate under open field condition as it can’t resist high temperature, high humidity or dry weather
Cultivation under protected condition: -
Under protected conditions the carnation cultivation is successful. However, a well ventilated, properly managed greenhouse which ensures control over temperature, humidity, CO2, light duration and light intensity are feasible for the cultivation of Carnation. The bed system or bench systems on which plants are to be grown should facilitate easy cultural operations like pinching, weeding, hoeing, manuring, fertilization application and harvesting. The green house should have adequate facilities for preventing the entry of insects inside. The beds can be of any convenient length depending upon the size of the green house, but the breadth of the bed should be kept only 1-1.2 m.
Schedule of planting: -
Planting should be done in a way so that it can be caught in the right market.
Planting: -
A plant to plant and row to row distance is recommended 15 cm X 15 cm and 20cm X 20cm.The depth of planting should be kept the same as per the rooting media in which cuttings are rooted. The planting of more depth can involve stem rot problems.
        Nutrient management plays an important role in quality production of carnation as deficiency or excess of any element leads to serious problems like reduced stem length, small flower size or flower with less vase life. The most serious problem can be calyx splitting. The deficiency of the nitrogen includes stem tip curving and yellowing of leaves. The deficiency of phosphorus causes leaf scorching in petal colour and yellowing of calyx. The deficiency of phosphorus leads to leaf death and yellowing leaves.
Recommended NPK doses:-
250ppm N and 200ppm P and K with each irrigation gives the best result for quality carnation production.
Both drip and sprinkler methods of irrigation are followed. The irrigation should be planned in such a way that soil remains moist up to the plant root zone. Wet soil should be avoided. The irrigation should be given on the basis of evapo-transpiration. Besides this soil moisture at optimum level can be checked with the help of Tensiometer.
Pinching or stopping is one of the most important operations to be done for quality flower production. It is the snapping off or removal of apical shoot leaving about 5-6 nodes on the plants 30-35 days after planting. To get 5-6 well-developed lateral shoots/plants it is necessary to pinch above the sixth node from the bottom. The carnation suffers a measure problem of apical dominance. The lateral shoots are unable to grow.
Usually disbudding is carried out to prepare plants for exhibition purposes or to remove the excess buds so as to enhance the flower's size. The main precautions which should be taken into consideration while disbudding is to prevent an injury to the plant.
Carnation is affected by the apical dominance and removal of the apical portion which enhances the growth of lateral shoots is called pinching. Generally 3 types of pinching are adopted in carnation viz.
a)         Single pinching:-
        Removal of main shoot upto 5-6 nodes.
b)        Pinch & half: -
The removal of the main shoot to the sixth node & then removal of the resulting shoots to half.
c)          Double pinching: -
Removal of main shoot to sixth node & again pinching of all lateral shoots when they attain 8-10 cm length.
Growth Regulators
      Immediately after pinching & again one month after pinching 100ppm of GA should be sprayed to get a long stalk length of flower & big bloom. However, application of BA (50ppm) at monthly intervals increases yield of cuttings.
Planting Distance: -
        20 cm X 20 cm plant to plant & row to row is recommended for carnation accommodating 75000 cuttings per acre.
Manures and fertilizers: -
5-10kg FYM per sq. metre and NPK @ 40:30:20 gm is recommended. Micronutrients should be applied so as to  prevent the quality yield loss. The most important micronutrients required for carnation are Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Mo.
Staking: -
 The stems should be prevented from falling down by providing support of iron, wooden or plastic meshes. A modern supporting method either of wire or nets comprises 2 vertical posts at both ends, w1th cross bars at intervals. Lighter grade "ladder", preferably of metal, can also be set along the length of the bed 3.5-4m apart.
Irrigation: - As per evaporation transpiration irrigation should be given. Usually irrigation is given alternately. Rooted cuttings need watering immediately after planting. The optimum moisture for the medium should be between 0.3 and 0.5 bar under low light levels, tension less than 0.3 bar produces soft elongated growth and low quality flowers. Water tension greater than 0.5 bar under high light intensities results in poor quality flowers.
Harvesting: -
Around 20 weeks are required for flowering after pinching. At the paintbrush stage, flowers are harvested. Pre-cooling is followed by pulsing which enhances the vase life of a cut flower.
Grading: -
      Grading is done on the basis of stem length, colour and size of the bloom. If the stalk length of the flower is 55cm with the blue colour of the flower then it is called fancy. If the stem length is 43 cm with flower colour red then it is called “Standard” and if the stem length is 30 cm with flower colour green then it is called “Short”. This grading is done by the Society of American florets. However the grading of Europeans includes the stem size ranging from 5 cm to 120cm.
Under open field conditions yield varies from 150-200 flowers /m2 and under green conditions around 300-400 flowers/m2.
Calyx splitting: -
       The calyx is unable to hold petals and thus flowers loss occurs. It is considered a genetic problem, Nutritional problem, an environmental problem and a combination of all three. Calyx-splitting occurs in many carnation cultivars, due to low temperature (<10 0  C)   during the growth  of   lower buds and an extra whorl of petals is developed inside the calyx. But the calyx is not able to contain these extra petals or petaloids  and splits.
Control: -
 Maintain optimum temperature, humidity, and nutrition. Use such cultivars which are free of this problem.
Conditioning of flowers
Carnation flowers are highly sensitive to ethylene. Pulsing with10% sucrose + 1mm STS for 8-10hr before transportation  is effective in increasing the storability and vase life of cut carnation. After pulsing, the flowers should be stored at 2°-4°C temperature and 95% relative humidity in water with a nutritive solution to prevent sleepiness in carnation.


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